مفهوم توسعه دربردارندۀ پیشرفت و ترقّی جامعه در تمامی ابعاد زندگی است. توسعه زمانی محقّق میشود که کلیه تلاشها برای انسان و تعالی او صورت پذیرد. در روند توسعه بر عوامل گوناگونی تأکید میشود؛ از جمله «انگیزۀ موفقیّت» افراد است که این متغیّر نیز تحت تأثیر عوامل دیگری شکل میگیرد. این مقاله بر اساس نظریۀ مککلهلند به تعیین میزان انگیزۀ موفقیّت در بین دانشجویان دختر و بررسی برخی عوامل مرتبط و مؤثر بر این انگیزه میپردازد. جامعۀ آماریِ پژوهش، کلیۀ دانشجویانِ دختر دانشگاه تبریز است که 166 نفر به صورت طبقهای، تصادفی انتخاب شدند و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه استاندارد و همچنین محقّقساخته است.نتایج نشان داد که رابطۀ مثبت و معنیداری (23/0) بین شیوۀ تربیتی دموکراتیک والدین و انگیزۀ پیشرفت دانشجویان وجود دارد. همچنین رابطۀ بین متغیّر علاقه به رشتۀ تحصیلی و میزان انگیزۀ پیشرفت مثبت و معنیدار (34/0) بوده است. از طرفی رابطۀ بین سطح تحصیلات دانشجو با انگیزۀ پیشرفت رابطۀ معکوس و معنیدار (42/0) بوده است. نتایج مربوط به تحلیل رگرسیون نیز بیانگر آن بوده که انگیزۀ پیشرفت بیشتر از همه از بُعد شیوۀ تربیتی دموکراتیک متأثر است.
نقش تربیتی والدین یکی از عوامل مهم تاثیرگذار در افزایش خلاقیت و انگیزۀ موفقیت فرزندان می باشد. لذا باید سعی شود تا به نحوۀ تربیت آنان بویژه در محیط خانواده توجه شود و والدین را از این امر آگاه ساخت که آیندۀ فرزندان آنها و آیندۀ توسعۀ کشور بی تاثیر از شیوه تربیتی آنها نیست.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Parent’s training styles and the feeling of need for achievement
Nowadays all societies seek the development of which human being is its basic factor. The development would not be completed if the human beings as the basis of it are not paid attention to and are not improved during this process. Human beings not only are the main purpose of development، but also they are the main factor and the capital of this development. Therefore, it is very important to consider all the factors that influence this vital capital. Given all the studies on this issue, it is necessary to consider the variables affecting motivation, job commitment, need for achievement, diligence and being competitive of work force. The family is one of the vital variables that has an important role in the life style, future, and personality formation of people. In this research, we have attempted to measure the impact parent's training styles on the feeling of need for achievement among female students of Tabriz University
Development theories have been categorized into different dimensions. In this paper, we divided them into pessimistic and optimistic theories. Some pessimistic thinkers believe that development path is not open for some societies (under developing and third world countries); Andre Gunder Frank (1971) is one of this scientists. On the other hand, optimistic thinkers suppose that there is no inherent barrier for the development of countries, and this way is open for the third world countries and other societies.
The modernization theories belong to optimistic view. These theories are presented in three areas of social, economic and psychological types. In the social field, we have theorists such Smelser (1959), Hoselitz (1952), and Eisenstadt (1973). In the economic field, Hirschman (1973), Schumpeter (1962), and Rostow (1960) can be seen. And in the area of psychological renewal theory, which points to the beginning of development as human renewal and the personality system, it is possible to refer to Hagen (1962) and McClelland (1953) theories. These theories consider the beginning of development as human renewal and personality system. In this study, we focused on McClellan's Need for achievement theory. According to this theory, the main factor for development and modernization is the tendency to success. Of course there are many different and important variables which influence this need. Some of these variables are mass media, formal and informal educational system, organizations, religion, family, and etc. For some limitation, we have chosen only the factor of "parents training style" as the main variable which affects the need for achievement.
The present study is an applied research using a survey method. In this investigation we utilized the first-hand data gathered by the use of questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed by the researchers and the pre-test was also taken before administration. A sample of 166 students are chosen among all female students in Tabriz University during 2013-2014 school year. The sampling was done using Chochran's formula and random stratified sampling technique.
We measured parenting styles according to the APA (1960) model. She recognized three different parenting styles. Authoritarian ("too hard")) or despotic (: the authoritarian parenting style is characterized by high demandingness with low responsiveness. Permissive ("too soft") (or easygoing): this parenting style is characterized by low demandingness with high responsiveness. And authoritative ("just right") (or democratic): this parenting style is characterized by high demandingness with huge responsiveness.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of parents training styles on the feeling of need for achievement in female students. According to this end, the results of the correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the “democratic training style” and the “feeling of need for achievement”. According this important result, we can conclude that Democratic training style will provide the basic conditions for increasing the need of achievement. But “despotic training style” had a negative impact on need achievement of female students. And there was no relationship between “easy training style” and the feeling need for achievement. The results of regression analysis also confirmed these findings. Other results showed that there is negative and significant relationship between educational level and need of achievement and there was a positive and significant between dependent variable and “the degree of interest in the field of study”.
Today it is proved that the development process is impossible without interested and highly motivated human resources. For this reason, each society that wants to follow the development process must give particular attention to human resources. The results of the research showed that the training styles of parents has important effect on the feeling of need for achievement among female students. In other words, parents can increase the need for success in their children directly and indirectly if they behave democratic with their children. The findings of this study confirmed, the views of McClelland (1953), Hagen (1963) and other scholars in the psychological field of development process. In terms of empirical research, the results of the present study are consistent with the results of the research conducted by Santrock (1984), Glasgow (1997) and Beirami and Khosroshahi (2010). Finally, according to these findings, researchers suggest that we must train parents for development process in every society especially in third world countries. And the family is the first step for development and every society must start its development from its families.